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FLIES
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FLIES



Flies are in the order Diptera, coming from the greek words ‘di’ meaning ‘two’, and ‘ptera’ meaning wings. This characteristic differentiates this group from most other insect species. Although mostly two-wings, some species of flies have developed  an additional pair of club-shaped wings which are positioned beneath the membranous inner-portion of the forewing. This adaption has enabled some flies to perform superior aerial movement and agility; The family most adept at using this adaption are hoverflies, Syrphidae.

Flies follow a complete metamorphosis with distinct egg, larval, pupal and adult stages. In some of the more specialised species, adults may give birth to live young. There are even some parasitic species where the female produces pupae, skipping the egg and larval stages, to speed up the lifecycle and align with the behaviour of the host animal. In most species, the final larval stage pupates forming a puparium. Some adults utilise an organ on the front of the head called the ptilinum, which is an extendable sac used to pierce the puparium case.

The species covered below are all found in Myanmar and have a wide range of histories and habitats, from the blowflies that develop in rotting vegetable and animal matter, to the scuttle flies that have purely aquatic larvae.

 

 

 

HOUSE FLY (Musca Domestica)

APPEARANCE:

Houseflies are 2-winged flies, typically measuring 5 – 7mm in length, and are usually a greyish colour, with 4 longitudinal dark stripes on their thorax.

BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR:

The females lay several batches of eggs (up to 100 eggs at a time) on a suitable larval substrate such as mixed household waste, food waste or faecal material. The larvae are typically whitish maggots, replica hublot and once their larval development is complete, they will crawl out into nearby dry areas in which to pupate. The entire life-cycle, from egg to adult can be completed in as little as 10 days, and the adults may then live for another few weeks.




SIGNS IMPACT PREVENTION
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These flies and their larvae are common around waste bins, rubbish dumps, poultry, pig and cattle farms, and the adults are also readily found indoors.

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FOOD POISONING – Flies are commonly associated with unhygienic conditions and this association is not without qualification. Flies feed on human and animal faeces, as well as rubbish and rotting animal carcasses. Because of this feeding habit, flies pose a serious health risk. Flies transmit a wide variety of bacterial diseases including Salmonella and E.coli. These bacteria are transported on fly mouth parts and limbs to foods that we eat and can cause serious illness and even death.

Javelin Services Limited

Fly problems in buildings can be reduced by keeping kitchens and bathrooms very clean, keeping food tightly covered, disposing of food waste outside the building daily, and keeping waste bins clean, closed and emptied regularly.

Doors and windows can be proofed with fly screens to prevent flies entering the building.

For commercial kitchens and warehouses, Fly Control units are the best way to reduce fly numbers.

Please see our fly control page for practical steps you can take to help prevent infestations and also for our specialist solutions.

FRUIT FLY (Drosophila spp.)

APPEARANCE:

Adult fruit flies are small, only about 3mm in length, and with tan-coloured bodies and distinctive red eyes.

BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR:

The females lay about 25 eggs per day on fermenting materials such as rotting fruit and vegetable waste, fermenting sweet juices, and soured milk. When the tiny larvae have completed their development they crawl out of the wet waste and pupate on a hard surface nearby. At typical Myanmar temperatures, they can complete their replicas hublot watches entire life cycle in 7 – 10 days, resulting in explosive development when conditions are right. Having reached the adult stage, they will live for another 2 weeks.




SIGNS IMPACT PREVENTION
Javelin Services Limited

Fruit flies are common in the home, bars, and restaurants, where they may be seen hovering around waste bins, over food and drink, or resting on the walls or ceiling. They may also occur in large numbers on accumulations of waste outdoors.

Javelin Services Limited

FOOD POISONING – Flies are commonly associated with unhygienic conditions and this association is not without qualification. Fruit flies are commonly found near and around waste bins and waste areas. Because of this feeding habit, flies pose a serious health risk. Flies transmit a wide variety of bacterial diseases including Salmonella and E.coli. These bacteria are transported on fly mouth parts and limbs to foods that we eat and can cause serious illness and even death.

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Regular cleaning, to remove vegetable waste, and removal of any spillages or accumulations of sweet liquid waste, will help reduce fruit fly problems.

Please see our fly control page for practical steps you can take to help prevent infestations and also for our specialist solutions.

Javelin Services Limited

BLOWFLY (Calliphora, Lucilia, Chrysomya and others)

APPEARANCE:

Blowflies are robust 2-winged flies, typically measuring 6 – 9mm in length, and are usually a distinctive bright metallic blue or green colour, hence their common name of blue/green bottles.

BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR:  The females lay batches of up to 200 eggs, on a suitable larval substrate such as meat, fish or faecal material. The larvae are typically whitish maggots, and once their larval development is complete, they will crawl out into nearby dry areas in which to pupate. The entire life-cycle from egg to adult usually takes around 2 weeks, and the adult may then live for another few weeks.




SIGNS IMPACT PREVENTION
Javelin Services Limited

These flies and their larvae are common around waste bins, rubbish dumps and abattoirs, but they will also enter indoors if raw or cooked meat or fish is left exposed.

Javelin Services Limited

FOOD CONTAMINATION –  Adults may lay eggs on food products such as raw or cooked meat or fish, either in the home, or in restaurants or shops, resulting in contamination, spoilage and complaints. Occasionally, they even lay their eggs on uncovered wounds, and this can cause maggot infestation in people or in animals.

Javelin Services Limited

Blowfly problems in buildings can be reduced by keeping food tightly covered, keeping waste bins clean and closed, and disposing of food waste outside the building on a daily basis.

Doors and windows can be proofed with fly screens to prevent flies entering the building.

For commercial kitchens and warehouses, fly control units are the best way to reduce fly numbers.

Please see our fly control page for practical steps you can take to help prevent infestations and also for our specialist solutions.

 

Javelin Services Limited

FLESH FLY (Sarcophaga sp.)

APPEARANCE:

The adult flies are relatively large, measuring c. 15mm in length. The abdomen is chequered grey and black, while the thorax has longitudinal dark stripes. The eyes are conspicuously red.

BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR:

This species differs from most flies, in that the female usually lays young larvae, instead of eggs. The larvae are found in putrefying and decomposing faecal or organic waste material.




SIGNS IMPACT PREVENTION
Javelin Services Limited

The presence of large numbers of chequered, red-eyed flies around waste bins or in food areas indicates an infestation.

Javelin Services Limited

FOOD CONTAMINATION –  Adults may lay eggs on food products such as raw or decaying meat or fish, either in the home, or in restaurants or shops, resulting in contamination, spoilage and complaints. Occasionally they even lay their eggs on uncovered wounds, and this can cause maggot infestation in people or in animals.

Javelin Services Limited

Installing appropriate fly and door screens will limit ingress of these flies into buildings. Ensuring proper containment and disposal of waste will reduce the number of flies attracted to the premises.

For commercial kitchens and warehouses, fly control units are the best way to reduce fly numbers.

Please see our fly control page for practical steps you can take to help prevent infestations and also for our specialist solutions.

Javelin Services Limited

STABLE FLY (Stomoxys sp.)

APPEARANCE:

The adult flies are a similar size to the common housefly, measuring c. 7 mm in length. The abdomen is chequered grey, while the thorax has longitudinal dark stripes. This fly may be instantly distinguished from the common housefly, as it has a forward-pointing needle-like proboscis.

BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR:

Stable Flies feed off blood from host animals, mainly cattle and horses, but can also bite humans. The larvae are usually found in heaps of manure from cattle or other farm animals, including poultry. After laying their eggs females normally die and males also normally die after mating. Their lifecycle is usually about 2 weeks.

 




SIGNS IMPACT PREVENTION
Javelin Services Limited

The presence of numbers of medium-sized flies, resting on cattle or other large farm animals, or basking on walls, and biting, is characteristic for this fly.

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BITE – This fly bites and feeds on blood. It feeds primarily on livestock and is therefore mainly a problem for farmers, but it will also bite humans. They are known to be vectors for various parasites and diseases such as Brucellosis and Fowlpox.

Javelin Services Limited

Ensuring animal manure is stored away from buildings, and ideally covered, will reduce the number of flies attracted to the premises.

Installing appropriate fly and door screens will limit ingress of these flies into buildings and stables.

Please see our fly control page for practical steps you can take to help prevent infestations and also for our specialist solutions.

Javelin Services Limited

FILTER FLIES (Psychoda spp.)

APPEARANCE:

These flies are around 2mm in length, pale grey coloured, with almond-shaped hairy wings and a moth-like appearance.

BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR:

They are weak fliers and often appear to crawl or run on surfaces. The larvae are found in moist, highly organic areas such as sink overflows, leaking shower trays, sewage filter beds, storm drains, manure and rotten vegetation. Each female can produce about 100 eggs and under optimum conditions, development can be completed in two weeks.




SIGNS IMPACT PREVENTION
Javelin Services Limited

Numbers of small, grey hairy flies crawling on windows or on bathroom surfaces may indicate an infestation.

 

Javelin Services Limited

Where abundant, for example close to sewage filter beds, filter flies can be a nuisance for residents and businesses.

Javelin Services Limited

Regular cleaning of drains, sewage pipes and kitchen floors will help stop accumulations of slime and will help reduce filter fly numbers. Prompt mending of plumbing leaks will also be helpful.

For commercial kitchens and warehouses, fly control units are the best way to reduce fly numbers.

Please see our fly control page for practical steps you can take to help prevent infestations and also for our specialist solutions.

Javelin Services Limited

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